Introduction There are different ways to think about reasoning. This handout discusses the one that I find most useful:
Key features[ edit ] A number of different kinds of argument map have been proposed but the most common, which Chris Reed and Glenn Rowe called the standard diagram,  consists of a tree structure with each of the reasons leading to the conclusion. There is no consensus as to whether the conclusion should be at the top of the tree with the reasons leading up to it or whether it should be at the bottom with the reasons leading down to it.
Each number represents a proposition premise or conclusion in the argument being diagrammed. The other component is a set of lines or arrows joining the points.
Each line arrow represents an inference. The whole network of points and lines represents a kind unstated assumptions writing a letter overview of the reasoning in the given argument There is disagreement on the terminology to be used when describing argument maps,  but the standard diagram contains the following structures: Dependent premises or co-premises, where at least one of the joined premises requires another premise before it can give support to the conclusion: An argument with this structure has been called a linked argument.
Although independent premises may jointly make the conclusion more convincing, this is to be distinguished from situations where a premise gives no support unless it is joined to another premise.
Where several premises or groups of premises lead to a final conclusion the argument might be described as convergent. This is distinguished from a divergent argument where a single premise might be used to support two separate conclusions. In the following diagram, statement 4 is an intermediate conclusion in that it is a conclusion in relation to statement 5 but is a premise in relation to the final conclusion, i.
An argument with this structure is sometimes called a complex argument. If there is a single chain of claims containing at least one intermediate conclusion, the argument is sometimes described as a serial argument or a chain argument.
In the following diagram, the contention is shown at the top, and the boxes linked to it represent supporting reasons, which comprise one or more premises. The green arrow indicates that the two reasons support the contention: A box and line diagram Argument maps can also represent counterarguments.
In the following diagram, the two objections weaken the contention, while the reasons support the premise of the objection: A sample argument using objections Representing an argument as an argument map[ edit ] Diagramming written text[ edit ] A written text can be transformed into an argument map by following a sequence of steps.
Monroe Beardsley 's book Practical Logic recommended the following procedure: Put circles around the logical indicators.
Supply, in parenthesis, any logical indicators that are left out. Set out the statements in a diagram in which arrows show the relationships between statements. A diagram of the example from Beardsley's Practical Logic Beardsley gave the first example of a text being analysed in this way: A box and line diagram of Beardsley's example, produced using Harrell's procedure More recently, philosophy professor Maralee Harrell recommended the following procedure: Rewrite them as independent statements, eliminating non-essential words.In our sample essay, we’re arguing that the conclusion is weakened by its three unstated assumptions.
Try to jazz up your writing with varied sentence structure and a few polysyllabic words. Being able to spot unstated assumptions is crucial to critical thinking.
For a sample question, can you spot the faulty assumption underlying this word problem from a fifth grade mathematics book? Look at it from the perspective of a book editor who is trying to decide whether to publish the book and is checking the quality of the math problems.
Essay topics: Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the pfmlures.com sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.
This handout discusses assumptions using a sample article about environmental racism and Hurricane Katrina. (It’s the same article used in the handout on writing a paragraph outline.). Definition. All arguments require assumptions.
This handout discusses different types of assumptions and gives examples. Nov 04, · This is GRE argument essay requirement: Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.
Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.
I am lucky because I found this . GRE Revised Analytical Writing -- Argument. 10 GRE argument prompts (front) and response directions (back) STUDY.
The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a scientific journal. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on.